Tag Archives: EPS growth


As the first week of January progressed and markets tumbled, I was thinking about this post and couldn’t get away from the thought that 2016 feels very like 2015. The issues that were prominent in 2015 are those that will be so again in 2016 plus a few new ones. The UK vote on the EU and a US presidential race are just two new issues to go with China economic and political uncertainty, Middle East turmoil, Russian trouble making, a political crisis in Brazil, the insidious spread of terrorism, a move towards political extremes in developed countries and the on-going fault lines in Europe and the Euro. All of these macro factors together with earnings and the impact of rising interest rates are going to dominate 2016.

2015 joins two other years, 2011 and 1994, in being a -1% year for the S&P500 in recent times, as the graph below shows. In fact, the movements of the S&P500 in 2015 show remarkable similarity with 2011. However, there the similarities end. 2011 was the year of the Euro crisis, the Arab spring and the Japan quake. Interest rates were falling, earnings stable, and PE multiples were around 15. 1994 was even more different than 2015. In 1994, the economy was taking off and the Fed was aggressively raising rates, earnings were stable and PE multiples fell to around 15. Interesting the next 5 years after 1994 on the stock market were each 20%+ years! With 2015 around a 20 PE and earnings falling, the comparisons are not favourable and may even suggest we got off lightly with just a -1% fall.

click to enlargeS&P500 Years Down -1%

A recent article in the FT does point to the influence of a limited number of stocks on the 2015 performance with the top 10 stocks in the S&P500 up 14% in 2015 and the remaining 490 stocks down 5.8% collectively. The performance of the so-called nifty nine is shown below. The article highlights that “dominance by a few big companies – or a “narrowing” market – is a symptom of the end of a bull run, as it was in the early 1970s (dominated by the “Nifty Fifty”) or the late 1990s (dominated by the dot-coms).”

click to enlargeS&P500 vrs Nifty Nine

Bears have long questioned valuations. The impact of continuing falls in oil prices on energy earnings and a fall off in operating margins are signalling a renewed focus on valuations, as the events of this past week dramatically illustrate. A graph of the PE10 (aka Shiller CAPE) as at year end from the ever insightful Doug Short shows one measure of overvaluation (after this week’s fall the overvaluation on a PE10 basis is approx 30%).

click to enlargeS&P500 Valuation PE10 Doug Short

One of the longstanding bears, John Hussman, had an article out this week called “The Next Big Short”, in honour of the movie on the last big short. Hussman again cites his favourite metrics of the ratio of nonfinancial market capitalization to corporate gross value added (GVA) and the ratio of nonfinancial corporate debt to corporate GVA (right scale) as proof that “the financial markets are presently at a speculative extreme”.

click to enlargeHussman Market Cap to GVA

Many commentators are predicting a flat year for 2016 with some highlighting the likelihood of a meaningful correction. Whether the first week in January is the beginning of such a correction or just a blip along the path of a continually nervous market has yet to be seen. Analysts and their predictions for 2016 have been predictably un-inspiring as the graph below shows (particularly when compared to their 2015 targets).

click to enlarge2016 S&P500 Analyst Targets

Some, such as Goldman Sachs, have already started to reduce their EPS estimates, particularly for energy stocks given the increasingly negative opinions on oil prices through 2016. The 12 month forward PEs by sector, according to Factset Earning Insight dated the 8th of January as reproduced below, show the different multiples explicit in current estimates with the overall S&P500 at 15.7.

click to enlargeS&P500 Sector Forward PE Factset 08012016

Current earnings estimates for 2016 as per the latest Yardeni report (EPS growth graph is reproduced below), look to me to be too optimistic compared to the trends in 2015 and given the overall global economic outlook. Future downward revisions will further challenge multiples, particularly for sectors where earnings margins are stagnating or even decreasing.

click to enlargeS&P500 Earnings Growth 2016 Yardeni

To further illustrate the experts’ views on EPS estimates, using S&P data this time, I looked at the evolution in actual operating EPS figures and the 2015 and 2016 estimates by sector, as per the graph below.

click to enlargeS&P500 Operating EPS by sector

With US interest rates rising (albeit only marginally off generational lows), the dollar will likely continue its strength and higher borrowing costs will influence the environment for corporate profits. Pent up labour costs as slack in the US economy reduces may also start to impact corporate profits. In this context, the EPS estimates above look aggressive to me (whilst accepting that I do not have detailed knowledge on the reasoning behind the EPS increases in individual sectors such as health care or materials), particularly when global macro issues such as China are added into the mix.

So, as I stated at the start of this post, the outlook for 2016 is looking much like 2015. And perhaps even a tad worse.

Reluctant Bulls

There was a nice piece from Buttonword in the Economist where he concluded that despite all the indicators of the equity market being overvalued that “investors are reluctant bulls; there seems no alternative”. This seems like a rationale explanation for the relatively irrational behaviour of current markets.

He highlighted indicators like the high CAPE, figures from the Bureau for Economic Analysis (BEA) on the profit dip in Q1, high share buybacks, figures from SocGen’s Andrew Lapthorne that the ratio of corporate debt to assets is close to its 2009 peak, and a BoA Merrill Lynch poll which shows that 48% of institutional investors are overweight equities whilst a net 15% believe they are overvalued.

Despite the bearish indicators everywhere, investors seem frozen by central bank indecision on whether economies still need help by remaining accommodative or that the recovery has taken hold and monetary policy needs to start to tighten.

Andrew Lapthorne released some analysis earlier this month highlighting that a significant amount of the previous year’s earnings growth was down to M&A from Verizon and AT&T and concluded that EPS growth by M&A and from share buybacks is a classic end of cycle indicator. Lapthorne produced the graph below of historical peaks and troughs in the S&P500 and noted that the average historical 1% down days is 27 per year since 1969 an the S&P500 has only had 16 in the past 12 months and that we have gone through the 4th longest period on record without a market correction of 10% or more.

click to enlarge
SocGen peak to through

Albert Edwards, also at SocGen, points to the difference in the BEA profit statistics and those reported being down to the expiration of tax provisions for accelerated depreciation and he concludes that “the bottom line is that the U.S. profits margin cycle has begun to turn down at long last“.

Even the perma-bull David Bianco of Deutsche Bank has cautioned against overvaluation calling the market complacent and moving into mania territory using their preferred measure of sentiment, namely the PE ratio divided by the VIX. The graph below from early June illustrates.

click to enlarge
DB Price Earnings VIX Ratio

From my point of view, I think the chart of the S&P500 for the past 10 years tells its own story about where we are. As Louis Rukeyser said “trees don’t grow to the sky“. Nor do equity markets.

click to enlarge

S&P500 Past 10 Years

Then again, always look on the bright side……

To recap on the bear case for the US equity market, factors highlighted are high valuation as measured by the cyclically adjusted PE ratio (CAPE) and the high level of corporate earnings that look unsustainable in a historical context. I have tried to capture these arguments in the graph below.

click to enlarge50 year S&P500 PE CAPE real interest rate corp profit&GDPCurrently, the S&P500 PE and the Shiller PE/CAPE are approx 10% and 30% above the average over the past 50 years respectively.

On earnings, Andrew Lapthorne of SocGen, in an August report entitled “To ignore CAPE is to deny mean reversion” concluded that “mean-reversion in earnings, though sometimes delayed, is as undeniable as the economic cycle itself. That peak profits typically accompany peak valuations only reinforces the point. When earnings revert back to mean (and below), the valuation will also collapse.” The graphic below from that report highlights the point.

click to enlargeSocGen Mean Reverting ProfitsThe ever bullish Jeremy Siegel, in a recent conference presentation, again outlined his arguments raised in the August FT article (see Shiller versus Siegel on CAPE post). The fifth edition of his popular book “Stocks for the long run” is out in December. Essentially he argues that CAPE is too pessimistic as accounting changes since 1990 distort historical earnings and the profile of S&P500 earnings has changed with bigger contributions from foreign earnings and less leveraged balance sheets that explain the higher corporate margins.

Siegel contends that after-tax profits published in the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) are not distorted by the large write downs from the likes of AOL and AIG. The changing profile of NIPA versus S&P reported earnings through historical downturns illustrate that historical S&P reported earnings are unreliable, as illustrated in the graph below.

click to enlargeNIPA versus S&P reported

However, even using NIPA data, a graphic from JP Morgan in late October shows that currently the S&P500 is approx 20% above its 50 year average.

click to enlargeS&P500 CAPE with NIPASiegel even proposed that current comparison should be against the long term average PE (1954 to 2013) of 19 including only years where interest rates were below 8% (which incidentally is only slightly higher than the 8.2 5o year average used in the first graph of this post).

The ever insightful Cliff Asness, founder of AQR Capital Management, counteracts such analysis with the recent comment below.

Does it seem to anyone else but me that the critics have a reason to exclude everything that might make one say stocks are expensive, and instead pick time periods for comparisons and methods of measurement that will always (adapting on the fly) say stocks are fair or cheap?

However, nothing is as black and white in the real world. The rise in corporate net margins has been real as another recent graphic, this time from Goldman Sachs, shows.

click to enlargeGoldman Sachs S&P500 net margin

Earnings from foreign subsidiaries have increased and S&P500 earnings as a percentage of global GDP show a more stable picture. Also leverage is low compared to historical levels (104% debt to equity for S&P500 compared to a 20 year average of 170%) and cash as a percentage of current assets is also high relative to history (approx 28%). Although there is signs that corporate leverage rates are on the rise again, future interest rate rises should not have as big an impact on corporate margins as they have historically.

JP Morgan, in another October bulletin, showed the breakdown of EPS growth in the S&P500 since 2010, as reproduced below, which clearly indicates a revenue and margin slowdown.

click to enlargeJP Morgan S&P500 EPS Annual Growth Breakdown October 2013David Bianco of Deutsche Bank has recently come up with a fascinating graphic that I have been looking at agog over the past few days (reproduced below). It shows the breakdown of S&P500 returns between earnings growth, dividends and PE multiple expansion.

click to enlargeDeutsche Bank S&P500 Growth BreakdownBianco, who has a  2014 end target of 1850 and a 2015 end target of 2000 for the S&P500, concluded that 75% of the S&P500 rise in 2013 is from PE expansion and that “this is the largest [valuation multiple] contribution to market return since 1998. Before assuming further [multiple] expansion we think it is important that investors be confident in healthy EPS growth next year. Hence, we encourage frequent re-examination of the capex and loan outlook upon new data points.

David Kostin from Goldman Sachs, who have a 2,100 S&P end 2015 target, stated that “multiple expansion was the key U.S. equity market story of 2013. In contrast the 2014 equity return will depend on earnings and money flow rather than further valuation re-rating.

Even well known pessimists like David Rosenberg and Nouriel Roubini are positive albeit cautious. Dr Doom has a 2014 target for S&P500 of 1900 (range 1650 to 1950) although he does give the US equity market an overall neutral rating. Rosenberg, who describes the current rally as “the mother of all liquidity rallies“, cites the US economy’s robustness over the past year as a sign that 2014 should see a further strengthening of the US economy.

So clearly future growth in the S&P500 will depend upon earnings and that will depend upon the economy and interest rates. Although I am still trying to get my head around a fascinating article from 2005 that shows negative correlation between equity returns and GDP growth, that brings me back to the macro-economic situation.

I know this post was to have represented the positive side of the current arguments but, as my current bear instincts can’t be easily dispelled, I have to conclude the post with the comments from Larry Summers at a IMF conference earlier this month that the US may be stuck in a “secular stagnation” and that the lesson from the crisis is “it’s not over until it is over, and that is surely not right now”.