Tag Archives: profit margins

Broken Record II

As the S&P500 hit an intraday all-time high yesterday, it’s been nearly 9 months since I posted on the valuation of the S&P500 (here). Since then, I have touched on factors like the reversal of global QE flows by Central Banks (here) and the lax credit terms that may be exposed by tightening monetary conditions (here). Although the traditional pull back after labor day in the US hasn’t been a big feature in recent years, the market feels frothy and a pullback seems plausible. The TINA (There Is No Alternative) trade is looking distinctly tired as the bull market approaches the 3,500-day mark. So now is an opportune time to review some of the arguments on valuations.

Fortune magazine recently had an interesting summary piece on the mounting headwinds in the US which indicate that “the current economic expansion is much nearer its end than its beginning”. Higher interest rates and the uncertainty from the ongoing Trump trade squabble are obvious headwinds that have caused nervous investors to moderate slightly valuation multiples from late last year. The Fortune article points to factors like low unemployment rates and restrictions on immigration pushing up wage costs, rising oil prices, the fleeting nature of Trump’s tax cuts against the long-term impact on federal debt, high corporate debt levels (with debt to EBITDA levels at 15 years high) and the over-optimistic earnings growth estimated by analysts.

That last point may seem harsh given the 24% and 10% growth in reported quarterly EPS and revenue respectively in Q2 2018 over Q2 2017, according to Factset as at 10/08/2018. The graph below shows the quarterly reported growth projections by analysts, as per S&P Dow Jones Indices, with a fall off in quarterly growth in 2019 from the mid-20’s down to a 10-15% range, as items like the tax cuts wash out. Clearly 10-15% earnings growth in 2019 is still assuming strong earnings and has some commentators questioning whether analysts are being too optimistic given the potential headwinds outlined above.

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According to Factset as at 10/08/2018, the 12-month forward PE of 16.6 is around the 5-year average level and 15% above the 10-year average, as below. As at the S&P500 high on 21/08/2018, the 12-month forward PE is 16.8.

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In terms of the Shiller PE or the cyclically adjusted PE (PE10), the graph below shows that the current PE10 ratio of 32.65 as at the S&P500 high on 21/08/2018, which is 63% higher than 50-year average of 20. For the purists, the current PE10 is 89% above the 100-year average.

click to enlargeCAPE Shiller PE PE10 as at 21082018 S&P500 high

According to this very interesting research paper called King of the Mountain, the PE10 metric varies across different macro-economic conditions, specifically the level of real interest rates and inflation. The authors further claim that PE10 becomes a statistically significant and economically meaningful predictor of shorter-term returns under the assumption that PE10 levels mean-revert toward the levels suggested by prevailing macroeconomic conditions rather than toward long-term averages. The graph below shows the results from the research for different real yield and inflation levels, the so-called valuation mountain.

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At a real yield around 1% and inflation around 2%, the research suggests a median PE around 20 is reasonable. Although I know that median is not the same as mean, the 20 figure is consistent with the 50-year PE10 average. The debates on CAPE/PE10 as a valuation metric have been extensively aired in this blog (here and here are examples) and range around the use of historically applicable earnings data, adjustments around changes in accounting methodology (such as FAS 142/144 on intangible write downs), relevant time periods to reflect structural changes in the economy, changes in dividend pay-out ratios, the increased contribution of foreign earnings in US firms, and the reduced contribution of labour costs (due to low real wage inflation).

One hotly debated issue around CAPE/PE10 is the impact of the changing profit margin levels. One conservative adjustment to PE10 for changes in profit margins is the John Hussman adjusted CAPE/PE10, as below, which attempts to normalise profit margins in the metric. This metric indicates that the current market is at an all time high, above the 1920s and internet bubbles (it sure doesn’t feel like that!!). In Hussman’s most recent market commentary, he states that “we project market losses over the completion of this cycle on the order of -64% for the S&P 500 Index”.

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Given the technological changes in business models and structures across economic systems, I believe that assuming current profit margins “normalise” to the average is too conservative, particularly given the potential for AI and digital transformation to cut costs across a range of business models over the medium term. Based upon my crude adjustment to the PE10 for 2010 and prior, as outlined in the previous Broken Record post (i.e. adjusted to 8.5%), using US corporate profits as a % of US GDP as a proxy for profit margins, the current PE10 of 32.65 is 21% above my profit margin adjusted 50-year average of 27, as shown below.

click to enlargeCAPE Shiller PE PE10 adjusted as at 21082018 S&P500 high

So, in summary, the different ranges of overvaluation for the S&P500 at its current high are from 15% to 60%. If the 2019 estimates of 10-15% quarterly EPS growth start to look optimistic, whether through deepening trade tensions or tighter monetary policy, I could see a 10% to 15% pullback. If economic headwinds, as above, start to get serious and the prospect of a recession gets real (although these things normally come quickly as a surprise), then something more serious could be possible.

On the flipside, I struggle to see where significant upside can come from in terms of getting earnings growth in 2019 past the 10-15% range. A breakthrough in trade tensions may be possible although unlikely before the mid-term elections. All in all, the best it looks like to me in the short term is the S&P500 going sideways from here, absent a post-labor day spurt of profit taking.

But hey, my record on calling the end to this bull market has been consistently broken….

Patience on earnings

With the S&P500 up 100 points since last week’s low of 1882, the worry about global growth and earnings has been given a breather in the last few days trading. Last weeks low was about 12% below the May high (today’s close is at -8.6%). Last week, the vampire squid themselves lowered their S&P500 EPS forecast for 2015 and 2016 to $109 and $120 respectively, or approximately 18.2 and 16.6 times today’s close with the snappy by-line that “flats the new up”.

The forward PE, according this FACTSET report, as at last Thursday’s close (1924) was at 15.1, down from 16.8 in early May (as per this post).

click to enlargeForward 12 month PE S&P500 October2015

Year on year revenue growth for the S&P500 is still hard to find with Q3 expected to mark the third quarter in a row of declines, with energy and materials being a particular drag. Interestingly, telecom is a bright spot with at over 5% revenue growth and 10% earnings growth (both excluding AT&T).

Yardeni’s October report also shows the downward estimates of earnings and profit margins, as per below.

click to enlargeS&P500 EPS Profit Margin 2015 estimates

As usual, opinion is split on where the market goes next. SocGen contend that “US profits growth has never been this weak outside of a recession“. David Bianco of Deutsche Bank believes “earnings season is going to be very sobering“. While on the other side Citi strategist Tobias Levkovich opined that there is “a 96 percent probability the markets are up a year from now“.

Q3 earnings and company’s forecasts are critical to determining the future direction of the S&P500, alongside macro trends, the Fed and the politics behind the debt ceiling. Whilst we wait, this volatility presents an opportune time to look over your portfolio and run the ruler over some ideas.

Siegel versus Shiller on CAPE

Following on from last week’s post citing the Shilling PE ratio, also called the cyclically adjusted price earnings ratio or CAPE, there was an interesting article in today’s FT referring to Jeremy Siegel’s previous critique of Robert Shiller’s bearish CAPE.

Siegel points to the current S&P500 level at a 15 to 16 times 2013 estimated earnings as being close to its historical average suggesting the CAPE is overtly negative. Siegel points out that the CAPE has been bearishly above its long term average for the past 22 years, except for a brief 9 month spell.

Siegel believes that the underlying earnings in the calculation need to be adjusted for accounting changes in the 1990s that required downward only adjustment to book values when asset prices are depressed without a rebalancing upwards when asset prices are rising. According to Siegel, using more appropriate National Income and Product (NIPA) profit data in the CAPE calculation results in a much more bullish CAPE indicator.

Another issue with the underlying data is the increase in profit margins over the past 15 years due to varying (and generally lower) global corporate tax rates, the rise of technology firms with fatter margins, and generally stronger corporate balance sheets.

Finally, Siegel points to the macroeconomic environment whereby periods of low interest and inflation rates justify higher PE ratios.

The FT article points to research by the London Business School that indicate the CAPE based upon data available at the time (“out of sample date”) is a poor historical indicator for timing entries and exits in the market. The research concludes there is no consistent relationship between forecasts and outcomes.

This research and Siegel’s criticism make valid points. Historical data does need to be viewed in the context of the reporting standards of the time. However, I would be sceptical about arguments about higher long term margins and that the current macro environment justifies higher multiples (as highlighted in a previous post). The fact is that we are in unchartered territory in terms of massive Central Bank market intervention and the macro environment across the globe presents considerable challenges in getting back to a normalised situation.

The fact that Shiller’s CAPE has been bearish for so long may make the case for some adjustment. The difficulty is that once we start making adjustments to fit the current situation the validity of the underlying metric is compromised. It is too simplistic to look at a single measure to justify investment decisions. Equally ignoring one measure over another when they indicate contrary views is naïve. Overall, I am more in the Shiller camp than the Siegel camp. Notwithstanding my expectation that we are due some Autumn volatility, I would purchase quality stocks on the dip if their valuation justified it. But the macroeconomic environment scares me so I am conscious of Andres Drobny’s advise that following the financial crisis one should always “change your views as facts change“. The difficulty, of course, is knowing when the facts are changing before its too obvious (and in all likelihood too late)!